The New Zealand Society of Translators and Interpreters (NZSTI) announced the launch of an ambitious project on Waitangi Day 2016: the Treaty Times Thirty project. To celebrate the Society’s 30th anniversary over 90 translators will work together to translate both the English and the Māori version of the Treaty of Waitangi, New Zealand’s founding document. NZSTI recently opened participation to non-NZSTI members. Would you like to be one of the 90 translators? Continue reading “Treaty of Waitangi – Found in Translation”
Last Sunday marked the beginning of Samoan Language Week celebrating the language and culture of Samoan people across New Zealand. With 144,000 people identifying as Samoan according to the 2013 Census, Samoan is now the third most spoken language in New Zealand, and the second in Auckland. Pacific peoples make up almost 8 percent of the population with just under half of those Samoan. Unsurprisingly, government agencies and other stakeholders publishing brochures and pamphlets aimed at ethnic communities in New Zealand very frequently request their translation into Samoan.
Today marks the beginning of New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) week, where we celebrate one of our official languages, connect with the deaf community, and raise awareness about NZSL. Here’s the first sign for the week:
Over the past two decades New Zealand has become home to over 160 different languages, making it one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse countries in the world (Spoonley & Bedford 2012), and that superdiversity is forecasted to increase even further (Statistic New Zealand 2013). And yet, little has been done at a national level to engage with the opportunities, and challenges, such linguistic diversity presents. The recent Lining up Language: Navigating Policy and Programmes conference organised by the Office of Ethnic Communities, and the current development of a Regional Languages Strategy by COMET Auckland may be signs that things are starting to change.
Hailed as the precursor to a national languages policy, Aoteareo: Speaking for Ourselves, a report published by the Ministry of Education in 1992, made the case for the implementation of a national decision-making system in the area of language issues, within a bicultural framework, by exploring ‘the benefits of adopting a policy to maintain, enrich and expand the diversity of languages used by New Zealanders’. Such a policy never came to fruition, and all language stakeholders – te reo Māori speakers and Māori communities, migrant communities, schoolchildren, adult learners, language service providers including translation and interpreting agencies, and their clients, central and local government, civil society organisations etc. – have operated in a vacuum, with patchy support and patchy results.
Many interested parties argue that the status quo is not a tenable solution, and that the time is ripe for some political leadership in this area. A number of subsidiary language initiatives have been developed to try and fill the vacuum, and the New Zealand Human Rights Commission published a draft national languages policy in 2010 calling for our political leaders to face up to the realities of our superdiverse society.
It is in this context that COMET Auckland was given the thumbs up by Auckland Council for its regional languages strategy. The draft strategy is available online for consultation, and you can download your submission form here to give your opinion. COMET CEO Susan Warren says that New Zealand urgently needs a national languages policy, and I certainly support efforts in this area. If implemented, the Auckland Languages Strategy might be a first step into that direction, and may potentially lead to a redefinition and a better understanding of the role of translation and interpreting in today’s society.
We’re finally back in business… and getting ready for Waitangi Day! January seems to have flown by so quickly, with summer holidays, gigantic and stressful projects, and all the works. In any case, we hope that you all had a great start to the New Year and are full of energy to take translation to a whole new level in 2015.
Those of you who aren’t based in New Zealand may not be aware, but tomorrow is an important day for New Zealand. The 6th of February 2015 will be the 175th anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi, New Zealand’s founding document, written both in English and Māori.
The Treaty is an agreement between the British Crown and about 540 Māori rangatira (chiefs). There were growing numbers of British migrants arriving in New Zealand in the late 1830s, and plans were made to settle the land extensively. Around this time there were large-scale land transactions with Māori, unruly behaviour by some settlers and signs that the French were interested in annexing New Zealand. The British government was initially unwilling to act, but it eventually realised that annexing the country could protect Māori, regulate British subjects and secure commercial interests.
Lieutenant-Governor William Hobson had the task of securing British sovereignty over New Zealand. He relied on the advice and support of, among others, James Busby, the British Resident in New Zealand. The Treaty was prepared in just a few days. Missionary Henry Williams and his son Edward translated the English draft into Māori overnight on 4 February. About 500 Māori debated the document for a day and a night before it was signed on 6 February.
Hobson and others stressed the Treaty’s benefits while playing down the effects of British sovereignty on rangatiratanga (chiefly authority). Reassured that their status would be strengthened, many chiefs supported the agreement. About 40 chiefs, starting with Hōne Heke, signed the Māori version of the Treaty on 6 February. By September, another 500 had signed the copies of the document that were sent around the country. Some signed while remaining uncertain; others refused or had no chance to sign. Almost all signed the Māori text. The Colonial Office in England later declared that the Treaty applied to Māori tribes whose chiefs had not signed. British sovereignty over the country was proclaimed on 21 May 1840.
The Treaty is a broad statement of principles on which the British and Māori made a political compact to found a nation state and build a government in New Zealand. The document has three articles. In the English version, Māori cede the sovereignty of New Zealand to Britain; Māori give the Crown an exclusive right to buy lands they wish to sell, and, in return, are guaranteed full rights of ownership of their lands, forests, fisheries and other possessions; and Māori are given the rights and privileges of British subjects.
The Treaty in Māori was deemed to convey the meaning of the English version, but there are important differences. Most significantly, the word ‘sovereignty’ was translated as ‘kawanatanga’ (governance). Some Māori believed they were giving up government over their lands but retaining the right to manage their own affairs. The English version guaranteed ‘undisturbed possession’ of all their ‘properties’, but the Māori version guaranteed ‘tino rangatiratanga’ (full authority) over ‘taonga’ (treasures, which may be intangible). Māori understanding was at odds with the understanding of those negotiating the Treaty for the Crown, and as Māori society valued the spoken word, explanations given at the time were probably as important as the wording of the document.
Different understandings of the Treaty have long been the subject of debate. From the 1970s especially, many Māori have called for the terms of the Treaty to be honoured. Some have protested – by marching on Parliament and by occupying land. There have been studies of the Treaty and a growing awareness of its meaning in modern New Zealand.
It is common now to refer to the intention, spirit or principles of the Treaty. The Treaty of Waitangi is not considered part of New Zealand domestic law, except where its principles are referred to in Acts of Parliament. The exclusive right to determine the meaning of the Treaty rests with the Waitangi Tribunal, a commission of inquiry created in 1975 to investigate alleged breaches of the Treaty by the Crown. More than 2000 claims have been lodged with the tribunal, and a number of major settlements have been reached.
You can view the original Treaty at Archives New Zealand in Wellington. If you go and view it, let us know! We’re on level 2 of the same building.
Source: ‘The Treaty in brief’, URL: http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/politics/treaty/the-treaty-in-brief, (Ministry for Culture and Heritage), updated 5-Aug-2014.